Salai Van Lian Thang: Ralkap Nih Uknak An Lak Than – Kan Hmailei Dirhmun

RALKAP NIH UKNAK AN LAK ṬHAN – KAN HMAILEI DIRHMUN ⟨estimated reading time: 12 minutes, 3571 words⟩
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Lungthin a mui, ngaih a chia i, lung a ṭha lo ngai. Nain, cuti men cun a za lo. Tutan thil cangmi kha ṭha tein a kalning cuanh a hau ngai. Tuanbia tlawmpal kan zohta hmasa lai. 1958 ah U Nu cozah sinin uknak an lak, Caretaker Government minin an uk, 1947 Phunghram a nung, 1962 ah thimnak an tuah ṭhan i teitu party kutah ralkap nih uknak an hluai ṭhan. (Coup de force). 1962 ah U Nu cozah sinin uknak an lak, Revolutionary Council minin an uk, 1947 Phunghram suspend an tuah, martial law in kum 12 an uk. (Coup d’état). 1988 ah BSPP cozah sinin uknak an lak, State Law and Restoration Council minin le State Peace and Development Council minin an uk, 1974 Phunghram an hrawh, martial law in 2011 tiang an uk. (Coup d’état). 2021 ah NLD cozah sinin uknak an lak, State Administration Council, tiah min an hun isak. 2008 Phunghram an suspend lo, martial law an hmang lo, kum khat chung an hun ti, thimnak kan tuah lai i uknak kan hluai ṭhan lai, an hun ti. (Coup de force)

Tutan ralkap nih uknak an lakmi hi 1958 lio Caretaker Government he a umtuning muisam aa hun khatmi asi. “Kan nih hi chikkhat uknak a tlai chungmi kan si” tiah ralbawizik Min Aung Hlaing nih cozah vuanci vialte hmaiah tuni a chim. (မိမိတို့သည် ခေတ္တထိန်းပေး သည့်သဘော ဖြစ်ကြောင်း). Tutan ah ralkap uknak an lak tikah: Phunghram upadi chirchanhmi an ngei (Art. 417 – State of Emergency). State of Emergency an thanhnak a ruang fiangin chimmi an ngei (Electoral fraud). Hi chirhchanh a ruang an langhtermi hi lungtlin lonak le alnak (legal disputes) a hun tam ngaingai. “Phunghram upadi ningin kan tuah dih” tiah i hngatnak“legal basic” cu an ngei ve. Cucaah uknak an lakmi hi dotlami thil asi maw timi “the legality of the coup” hi a biapibik cemmi cu a hun si.

Pakistan ralbawi Musharraf nih State of Emergency a rak thanh i, uknak a rak lak bal ve. Nain, Democratic State Institutions a thazaang a hunṭhawn tikah kum saupi hnuah a thil tuah cu upadi nih a doi ṭhan. The Supreme Court of Pakistan nih “State of Emergency” a rak thanhmi cu “unconstitutional” tiah a ti piak ṭhan. Ram rawiphiartu “High Treason Case” in taza an cuai ciamman i, thihdan pek ding asi. Dubai ramah a zam, tuni tiang cu ka cun a um.
Tutan Kawl ralkap an thil tuahmi zong hi hmailei ah upadi nih a kan doi ṭhan te khawh, timi hi an theihmi asi ko lai. Cucaah “phunghram upadi tangin kan tuah” tiah pohmah le upadi chirhchanh (legal basic) hmangin an dirpi peng vemi hi si dawh asi.

2008 Phunghram ningah State of Emergency (Art. 417) cu President lawnglawng nih National Defense and Security Council he ichimchonh in a thanh khawh. NLD cozah U Win Myint nih President a ṭuan liopi kha asi.
Upadi lei a thiamhngalmi legal scholars tampi nih “question” an tuahmi cu: zeitindah Art. 72 le Art. 73 (a) hi an hman khawh, timi hi asi. Art. 72 ningah President le Vice Presidents cu anmah lungtho tein an rian in an idin kho, timi a um. Nain, President U Win Myint cu amah lungtho tein aa dinmi asi lo. Impeachment zong a um lo. Cucaah (legally speaking) U Win Myint hi incumbent President asi ko rih ti khawh asi. President a um ko lioah Vice President nih Acting President ah a kai khawhnak lam upadi ah a um lo. Cu zonah “question mark” nganpi kha a hun um.

Cun Art. 73 ningah President nih rian in a chuah (resign) ruang maw, a thih (death) ruang maw, zungzal rian ṭuankhawh ti lo (disability) asi ruangah maw, asiloah a dang ruangah (any other cause) asi ahcun Presidential election lioah a pahnihnak mee tambik hmumi Vice President nih Acting President a ṭuan lai, tiah a um. Zeiruang zeiruang khi hmangin dah Vice President U Myint Shwe hi Acting President ah a kai khawh timi hi “question” nganpi a hun asi. “A dangdang ruang (any other cause)” timi zon hi zeitindah an hrilhfiah fianter lai, timi “interpretation” zonah ruahawk a tam ko. Hi zonah ralkap leiin a ruang an fiantermi a um rih lo. Hi zon nih a zulhdoi te dingmi hna kha asi.

Micheu nih cun: President U Win Myint hi phung ning tein President asi rih ko caah Acting President cu phungning loin kaitermi asi. Cucaah phungning loin a kaimi Acting President nih Art. 417 hmangin State of Emergency a thanhmi cu phunghram ninglo “unconstitutional” asi. Cucaah ralbawizik bochohhmuci Min Aung Hlaing kutah uknak a hluaimi zong phung ninglo asi. Cucaah ralbawizik nih State Administration Council a dirhmi zong phung ninglo le phunglobuu an sih, tiah an ti. Cucu ruahawk tlak asi. Cucaah cu bantuk “questions” tete nih an hnu in a zulh te hna lai.

2008 Phunghram tangah “constitutional emergency powers” kha phunthum in a um. Tutan ah cu zon cu mi tampi nih kan cawh pah hna in a lang. Phun 1nk cu: Art. 410 tangin State of Emergency asi. Hihi cu “local administrative body” nih ṭuanvo an lak khawh lo tikah an thanhmi phun asi. (local administrative body cannot carry out its administrative functions). Phun 2nk cu: Art. 412 tangin State of Emergency asi. Hihi cu “If endangers lives, shelter or property of the public” ti asi. President nih “military administrative order” kutah uknak a pek khawh. Ralkap nih local bodies kha remdaihnak le uknak a tlamtlin khawhnak hnga bawmh khi asi. Hi “emergency powers” pawl hi cu: Arakan, Meiktila le Kokang areas pawlah an rak hman bal cang. USDP cozah chanah voithum, NLD cozah chanah voikhat (Arakan) ah an hman. Hi phun hi cu ni 60 chungah Pyidaungsu Hluttaw nih a hnatlakpi ṭhan kha a hau. (Art. 415 and 416). Phundang cun: hi pohmah tangin State of Emergency caan lioah Legislative Body a um rih. Judiciary Body zong a um rih. Executive Body zong a um rih. Ralbawizik kutah cu pawl cu chiah dih an si hna lo. Phun 3nk cu: tutan State of Emergency hi asi. Art. 417 hmangin thanhmi asi. Art. 40 (c) zong chirchchan khawhmi asi. Hihi cu “disintegrate the Union or disintegrate national solidarity or that may cause the loss of sovereignty, due to acts or attempts to take over the sovereignty of the Union by insurgency, violence and wrongful forcible means” ruangah thanh khawhmi asi.

Hi bantuk tutan State of Emergency hi cu Kawlram ah hman asi bal rih lo. Tutan hi a voi 1nk hmanmi a hun si. Hi State of Emergency hi cu a ruang a lian tukmi le a ngantukmi asi caah a zual hmabik le a fakbikmi kha asi. Ralkap nih tutan hi “attempts to take over the sovereignty of the Union by wrongful forcible means” timi kha puhnak a ruang hrampi ah an lakmi a hun si. (thimnak ah thianghlimlonak le mee firnak tampi kha phisin loin rampi uknak nawl kha ningcang loin hramhram in lak an zalh, timi puhnak asi). Hi a ruang chirhchanh an lakmi hi rinhtlak asi le silo kha “bia” tampi nih a zulh te hna lai. Hi zonah ruah awk a tammi cu: tutan State of Emergency (Art.417) chungah Pyidaungsu Hluttaw asiloah State Hluttaw tbk hi a um ti maw timi hi asi.

Pohmah 418 (a) ning cun phung sernak nawl (legislative power), uknak nawl (executive power) le biaceihnak nawl (judicial power) cu State of Emergency an thanh ni in ralbawizik Min Aung Hlaing kutah pek dih asi cang caah cu ni thawkin Hluttaws vialte an rian kha ngolter (suspend) dih asi. (legislative functions of all Hluttaws and leading bodies shall be suspended from the day of declaration). Cun Hluttaw a term kha a dih laimi asi ahcun donghter (dissolved automatically) colh a hun si fon.

Cucaah hi pohmah ning cun NLD hruaimi the 2nd Pyidaungsu Hluttaw hi tutan State of Emergency an thanhni February 1 thawkin cun a dong ve colh – a um ti lo. Cun a ra laimi the 3rd Pyidaungsu Hluttaw caah thimmi MP hna zong kha “oath of office” an tuah rih lo caah MP ah thimmi “elected MP” lawng an si rih, MP taktak an si rih hna lo. “Nan khuaah tlung dih uh” an ti hna, tiah thawngpang a leng. Hi nih a langhtermi cu: tutan State of Emergency chungah Hluttaw a um ti lo, “legislative functions” a um ti lo. Ralbawizik kutah chiah dih a hun si. Cun “Judiciary power” zong kha ralbawizik kutah pek dih a hun si. Cucaah amah nih biaceihbawi kha a thar in a hun fehter ṭhan hna. Cun “Executive power” zong kha ralbawibik kutah pek dih asi. Cucaah vuanci le cozah upa pawl kha a thar in a hun thim ṭhan. Min zong kha athar in an hun isak – State Administration Council (SAC) an hun iti.

Cucaah Art. 410 tangin State of Emergency, cun Art. 412 tangin State of Emergency le Art. 417 tangin thanhmi State of Emergency pathum hi a umtuning an i khat hna lo. Tutan Art. 417 tang lakmi State of Emergency hi cu a zualhmabik le a fakbik asi i upadi serphu, biaceihphu le uktuphu an rian vialte kha ralbawizik kutah chanh le pek dih asi.
Nain, pohmah Art. 421 ningah President nih Art. 417 le Art. 418 ningin a thanhmi State of Emergency cu Pyidaungsu Hluttaw ah a tlakpi lai, ti a um ṭhan. Zeitik timi rikhiah bel a um hoi lo. Pyidaungsu Hluttaw an ṭhut lio asi lo ahcun emergency session a auh lai, ti a um. Hi nih zeibantuk Pyidaungsu Hluttaw cu hme? ti mi biahalnak a chuahter. Phunhnih a um kho men.

Pakhatnak cu: pohmah Art. 419 ningin ralbawizik nih “legislative power” kha a lak cang caah “legislative body” kha amah nih aser te khawh. Cucu Pyidaungsu Hluttaw tiah a min a pu kho hnga maw ti kha ruah-awk a umter. Cucu Pyidaungsu Hluttaw asi sual ahcun cu emergency session cu auhin tutan State of Emergency hi cu zonah a chuahpi te khawh men. Pahnihnak cu: Art. 417 ningin thanhmi State of Emergency hi cu ni 60 chung thengah Pyidaungsu Hluttaw ah a chuahpi lai timi rikhiah caan a um lo. Cucaah thimnak a thar an tuah ṭhan hnu a ra laimi Pyidaungsu Hluttaw zong kha asi khomi khi asi. Cucaah tutan an thanhmi State of Emergency hi zeibantuk phun Pyidaungsu Hluttaw ah ralbawizik nih a chuahpi te lai, timi hi cu caan nih a hun chim lai. Thil a fiangmi cu: NLD hruaimi the 2nd Pyidaungsu Hluttaw kha cu si dawh asi ti lo. Cun 2020 thimnak in a chuakmi the 3rd Pyidaungsu Hluttaw zongah si dawh in alang lo. Ralbawizik nih a sermi asiloah a ra laimi thimnak thar in a chuakmi ah si te dawh khi asi.

Ruah-awk a ummi cu: ralbawizik nih pohmah Art. 419 in a dirhte dingmi “Legislative Body” nih 2008 Phunghram hi a duhning in a duhnak zon tete charin a remh, a chap, a zuh, a hrawh khawh te lai maw timi hi asi. Thailand style aa cawn ve ahcun cucu a tuah khawh menmi asi. Cucu “interesting issue” ngai zong kha asi. Mi tampi nih ralbawizik nih State Administration Council a dirh i, State and Region cozah upa, Township le District ukning tungtlang le biaceihbawi upa hna, UEC upa le a dang Union-level organizations upa hna aser ṭhan tikah an khuaruah a har non. Hihi cu khuaruahhar asi lem lo. Pohmah Art. 419 nih sovereign powers timi: phungsernak nawl (legislative power), uknak nawl (executive power) le biaceihnak nawl (judicial power) vialte kha ralbawizik kutah a chiah dih cang caah amah nih rianṭuantu thar a hun ser ṭhanmi bantuk kha asi ko.

Ralkap nih 1962 Revolutionary Council le 1988 State Law and Order Restoration Council an dirhmi, upadi chirhchanh zeihmanh a um lomi, phun he khan cun tutan hi aa khat deuh lo. Tutan cu “legal source” kha 2008 phunghram pohmah Art. 419 an hun ngei. Cucaah ralkap nih aa-naa-ting kan ti tikah voidang he an i khah deuhlonak te khi a um.
Cun tuni ah rian khinhmi hna zong kha 2008 Phunghram nih nawlngeihnak a pekmi “functions le duties” tangin rianṭuan dingah nawlpek an hun si. Biana ah Chin State Administration Council Chairman nih 2008 Phunghram nih nawlngeihnak a pekmi Chief Minister a rian te kha a ṭuan ve lai. Naypyidaw in DASSK nih a hun khanhmi le Naypyidaw in Min Aung Hlaing nih a hun khanhmi kha dannak bik cu asi ko rua. Mipi nih thimmi an si lomi le ralkap rim an nam deuhmi tu nih mi lungthin a buaiter ngai ko. Nain, tulio a nungmi upadi (existing laws) ningin kan zulh lai an ti caah kuli phorhter, porter suai le mipi a hremmi cozah “oppressive regime” phun cu an si lem hna lai zumh a um lo.

Ralkap nih 1962 thimnak lioah 𝑆𝑤𝑒-𝑁𝑔𝑒𝑖𝑛 𝑃ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑎𝑏𝑎𝑙𝑎 Party kha a chung tein an rak dirpi nain 𝑁𝑢-𝑇𝑖𝑛 𝑃ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑎𝑏𝑎𝑙𝑎 Party nih an rak tei. U Nu cozah cu sau a kal hlanah March 1962 ah 𝑎𝑎-𝑛𝑎𝑎 𝑎𝑛 𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔. 1990 thimnak ah ralkap nih NUP party kha an dirpi ṭhan nain NLD nih a rak tei. Uknak an hluai duh hoi ti lo. 2020 thimnak ah ralkap nih USDP kha a chung tein an dirpi hoi nain NLD nih a tei. Tutan ah mah thil hi a hun cang. Hi thil tete nih thil a cuanh zia a kan thiamter ngai cang men ko lai.

Tutan State of Emergency hi kumkhat chung caah asi tiah an thanh (Art. 417). Cun, an rian an lim manh lo ahcun thlaruk (six months) veve in voihhnih tiang a caan sauh piak khawh kha an si (Art. 425). Cucaah a dihlak in kum 2 chung a saubik uknak an lak khawh tinak khi a hun si. Cucaah State Administration Council hi 2008 Phunghram an zulh ko asi ahcun upadi ning cun kumhnih pin an peh khawhnak lam a um lo. 2008 Phunghram an zulh le zulh lo tu kha asi te ko lai.

Micheu nih “upadi an zul lai lo i kum saupi an kan uk te lai” tiah lung a dong ngai. Ralkap cu zumh an um lo ngai hrim ko. Nain, mah 2008 phunghram cu anmah a humhaktu hna asi caah an hrawh duh lai hi zumh a um lo. Cun, fiang tein State of Emergency a caan sauhkhawh zat hi phunghram ah ṭha tein aa ṭial ko caah lang-hngan tukin upadi pahin an kal ngam lai zumh a um fon lo. Hi pohmah Art 425 hi cu “interpretation” ah i al hau loin fiang tein hngalh khawh dihmi asi caah dotlami a ruang pakhatkhat ṭha tein an ngeih ti lo ahcun kum hnih pin cu an peh khawhnak lam a har ko lai.

Nain, pohmah Art. 417 chungin buainak (State of Emergency thanh khawhnak) an timi pawl hi pakhatkhat a chuah chap sual ahcun upadi ningin an ti lai i a thar in State of Emergency kha an thanh ṭhan lengmang khawh. Kumhnih pinah upadi ningin uk khawhnak an ngeihmi cu mah lawng hi a lam a um in a lang. Culocun 2008 Phunghram kha an hrawh lawlaw a hei hau hnga i, a thar in phunghram kan suai ṭhan tiah kum saupi a caan an lak hoi hnga. Cucu an ca zongah a fawimi lam asi lem rua lo.

Cucaah tutan State of Emergency hi 1958 lio Caretaker Government umtuning muisam he aa hun khat non. 1962 le 1988 lio bantuk “coup d’état” phun asi lo, 1958 lio bantuk “coup de force” a hun si. Phunghram upadi nih rikhiahmi le khapmi ricaan a ngei. Tuan le tlai ah upadi ningin mipi sinah uknak hluai ṭhan kha a hau. Cucaah “State of Emergency a dihin thimnak kan tuah lai i, teitu ramkhel party kutah uknak kan hluai ṭhan lai” tiah vawleipi le rammi zapi sin biakam theihternak an thanhmi hi an tuah te men ko lai.

Thimnak a thar in an tuah lai i, Acting President sinah “rian kan lim cang” tiah report an pek lai i, pohmah Art. 422 ningin Acting President nih “State of Emergency a dong cang” tiah a thanh lai. Cun Pyidaungsu Hluttaw an auh lai i President thar an thim lai, cu kutah ralbawizik hruaimi State Administration Council nih uknak hi an hluai ṭhan te men ko lai.

Biahalnak pahnih a um. Pakhat cu: zeitikdah uknak cu an hluai ṭhan lai timi hi asi. A hohmanh nih kan chim kho hna lo. Nain, kan chim cia bang phunghram upadi ning cun kum 2 chungah an hluai ṭhan cu a haumi asi. Pahnihnak cu: an tuah ṭhan te dingmi thimnak hi “free and fair” asi lai maw timi hi asi.

Thimnak kan tuah te lai an timi hi cu “free and fair” asi lai zumh a har ngai. Zeicatiah an cawlcangh zoh tikah hi State of Emergency chungah NLD hi a phunphun in hrawh an izuam kho men. NLD hruaitu hna kha tlaih le khih a tam te kho men. Thimfung mee firnak (election fraud) hi an hlat lai i, pohmah phunphun bunh in tazacuai le thongthlak an timh te men hna lai. DASSK hna thimnak cuh kho loin tuah hna an izuam te kho men. USDP nih a teinak dingah 2010 lio bangin lam hna an ser khawhmi zong kha asi. Fak tuk lomman in NLD nih NUP atei kha an celh lo, USDP a tei zong an ing kho lo, ti kha tuanbia ah kan hmuhmi a hun si.

Hi ralkap nih uknak an lakmi cu kan duh lo ngaimi le kan huat ngaimi asi dih nain 2008 Phunghram le a nung liomi upadi (existing laws) ning zulhin rian kan ṭuan lai, an timi nih tlawmpal cu a zia a hun umter. Hi State of Emergency chungah cun rammi covo Fundamental Rights kha an chuh khawh, an lak khawh, an phih khawh. Phung upadi ningin an buarmi kongah dantat le azizut khawh asi lo (Art 432). Nain, tutiang cu hmasa cozah policy ning tein kan kalpi lai, aa thlengmi a um lo, an ti. Khammi le khapmi an ngei rih hraw lo. Phung upadi an zulh le zulh lo tu cu an tuahsernak nih a hun chim te lai.

Tutan ah ralkap uknak duhlonak phunphun langhternak a hung um. DASSK hrim nih “ rak tuah uh” tiah ca a chiahtami kha asi. Nitlakram hna mawhchiatnak zong a hun lian ngai. Thaizing kiptuh lei cun a ramkau chin lengmang dawh zong asi. Nain, 2020 Kawlram thimnak “results” hi cu nunter a har cang men lai – an thah thai ko cang men lai dah. Phundang cun: Daw Aung San Suu Kyi le U Win Myint hruaimi NLD cozah kutah uknak an hluai ṭhan lai hi zumh a um ti lo. 2020 thimnak in a chuakmi The 3rd Pyidaungsu Hluttaw zong an au ti lem lai lo. Tuning tein State of Emergency hi a nemnak he a hrannak he a dongh tiang chuaklak an kalpi te men ko lai.

Nitlakram le USA nih Kawlram kong cu “human rights le democracy issue” ah an chiah, an foreign policy mitah a neemmi “soft-issue” te khi asi, a hakmi “security issue” phun asi lo. Cucaah R2P te hna, military intervention te hna, humanitarian intervention te hna, an hmang lai lo. UN Charter 2 (7) nih “non-intervention in domestic affairs of States” timi a ngei. Cu principle hmangin Tuluk le ram innpa hna nih Kawlram kong cu “an innchungkhar thil asi” tiah ithlak an duh bal lo, thlak aa timmi zong kha an kham tawn hna. Zeitlukin rammi nih kan tuar i ralkap nih an kan uk le uk lo kha biapi ah an chia lo, an nih caah cun “stability” a um phot cun a za, an ti. UN Security Council nih “threat of international peace and security” phun asi lo ahcun luhhnawh khawh asi hoi lo. Biahalnak cu: zeidah kan tuah khawh? timi hi asi.

Kawl ralkap nih rammi hi minung ah a kan rel tawn lo. Amah nih duhning in thilri bang a hman khawhmi le aa ngeihmi thilri le hmanrua bantuk sawhsawh ah a chiahmi kan si. Ralkap hi a cungcuangbik kan si timi “military supremacy mindset” a hram thuk tukin a thlak cangnak ram si caah a hrampi in phongh in phoro lawlaw lo ahcun a ci a kheu ṭhan rih peng ding khin alang.

Nain, a hrampi phongh cu a fawimi asi hoi lo. Kan tuah khawhmi cu kung nganpi an si hlanah akung hau khi asi. Chim duhmi: caan saupi uknak an tlaih hlanah an itimhning tein a rannak in thimnak an tuah colh i uknak an hluai ṭhan colhnak hnga fakpiin nornak tuah hi asi ko. Cun an hrenmi hna le an tlaihmi hna thlah ṭhan colh dih dingah nor hi asi ko. International pressure a phunphun in a chuak rih lai – thil ṭha an si. Cun “people’s power” phun zong a phunphun a chuak lai –“civil disobedience movement” zong cu hmual a ngei ko lai. Cun “armed struggle” zong kha “pressure” phunkhat ah hman khawhmi asi. Mifim nih “ram uktu cu ukmi hna nih an cohlan caah an uk khawhmi hna asi” tiah an chim. Rammi nih kan cohlan hna lo ahcun saupi an kan uk kho hlei lai lo.

Thinphang thlalau ngai le lungrawk ngaihchia tukin um ding cu kan si lem hna lo. Tutan cu 1962 le 1988 bantuk ralkap nih uknak an lakmi “coup d’état” phun kha asi lo. 1958 lio uknak an lakmi “Caretaker Government” bantuk “coup de force” phun kha a hun si. Cucaah thimnak an tuah lai i mipi kutah uknak an hluai ṭhan te ko lai tihi zumh a ummi asi ko. Cutin an tuah lo ahcun 2008 Phunghram upadi lonhin kalnak lam an ngei hlei lo caah harnak tu kha an tong chin lengmang te lai.
Salai Van Lian Thang
4 February 2021