Prsident Nih Martial Law A Hman Khawh Lonak A Ruang

1941 lio i Japan nih Pearl Harbor a kah hnu in khan Hawaii hi martial law tangah a um bal cang i, a kumvui ah Harry White an ti mi pa hi ralkap a si lo lawng si lo in, a riantuanmi zong hi ralkap rian he ai pehtlaimi zong a si lo nain, a kongah ralkap bawi pawl an rak i thlaak bal. Puaisa a si i mi phaisa a dehhlen hna ruangah a bia an ceihmi pa a si. A sualnak hi ralkap phung a si lo i, civilian phung a si. Cu lio i Hawaii i an nifatin khuasaknak hi parliament an thimmi hna nih uk lo in, ralkap governor nih a uk hna.

Mr White cu ralkap biaceihzung ah an chuahpi i, kum 5 thong thlak dingin Major Murrell nih biachahnak a tuah.
Mr White a konglam he telhchih in US nih martial a hman hi tuanbia chungah voi 68 lenglo a um bal cang. Martial law kong hi thitha in a sullam an rak pem lo. US Constitution nih le martial law a langhter lo pinah, Congress lei zong nih a sullam an langhtermi zong a um fawn lo. Supreme Court nih hin voi tlawmte tatak lawng a kong a chim bal i, SC nih a hmuhning zoh tikah punghmna a si lo i, biafiang zong a um lo. Martial law an hmanmi tete an vun charmi pawl zong hi kum 75 hna a luan cangmi, hei ti bantuk lawngte an si.

Nihin i US nih law an hmanmi tangah cun, President nih martial law hmannak nawl ai ngeih lo, ti a si. Martial law thanh dingin Congress nih President hi nawl a pek khawh men ko lai nain, cu bantukin Congress nawl a pek khawh le pek khawh lo kongah biachahnak a um fawn lo. State officials zong nih martial law thanh khawhnak nawl an ngei, asinain, cucu US Constitution ning tein a si lai i, an tuahnak a ruang hi federal biaceihzung ah zohfelpiak an si lai, ti asi.

President nih hin Civilian authorities hi federal ralkap he an dirhmun thlen khawhnak nawl a ngei lo nain, civilian law enforcement bomhchanh dingah ralkap pawl rianpeknak nawl belte cu ai ngeih. Cucaah, Congress le state legislatures pawl nih thadeuh in an tawlrel hlan chung paoh cu martial law hi cuhlan bantuk lawngin hman khawh a si lai. Cu tikah, martial law phunphai in President nih ramchung ah ralkap rian a fial hna ah cun, cucu tih a nung ngai kho ding khi a si.

๐ƒ๐š๐ฅ ๐ค๐ก๐š๐ญ๐ง๐š๐ค: ๐Œ๐š๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐š๐ฅ ๐ฅ๐š๐ฐ ๐š ๐ฌ๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ฅ๐š๐ฆ; Martial law nih hin ciammamtein serpiakmi sullam ai ngeihmi a um lo. US i ramchung ralkap pawl an cawlcanghnak hi buatlakin phun 3 in then a si: Phunkhatnak โ€“ khuacaan ah cun non-law (upai he ai tlai lo mi) thazaang chuahnak he pehtlaiin ralkap nih civilian authorizes pawl bomhnak an pek hna. (Ralkap nih uknak lak ti siloin harnak bawmhnak kong ah ti tu asi) 2005 i Hurricane Katrina thlichia a hraan lio ah khan local cozah nih ai tawlrel cawk ti lo caah, ralkap nih helicopter he an pawhhnawh hna. Phunhnihnak โ€“ Civial authorities pawl nih law enforcement kongkau i cawlcanghnak an ngeihmi hi ralkap nih an bomhchanh tawn hna. 1992 Los Angeles mipi buainak tawlrel dingin state le federal ralkap an rak hman bal hna. (Ralkap nih uknak an lak ti siloin police nih a celh ti lo ahcun an bawmh ve hna titu asi) Phunthumnak โ€“ WWII lio i Hawaii, hei ti bantuk i ralkap nih civilian cozah ai an rolh caan a um bal. (Japan nih a rak tuk caah Hawaii cu emergency in Ralkap nih an tlaih chung ramchung himnak caah).

Hi a phunthumnak a sining zoh tikah, โ€œMartial lawโ€ timi a sullam cu hmunhma pakhatkhat ah civilian cozah ai rolh in ralkap nih biaceih khuakhaannak an tuah. Local police nakin anmah ralkap pawl tu hi khua chungah rian an tuanter deuh hna. Policy kong i biachahnak zong hi elected officials nih si lo in anmah ralkap officers pawl nih tuanvo an lak. Civilian biaceihzung ah si lo in anmah ralkap biaceihzung tu ah mipi buaibainak hi an ceihkhaan. A tawinak in chim ah cun, ralkap nih tuanvo an lak dih, tinak a si.

Cucaah, civilian cozah ai rolh, timi hi a dang martial law an hman ning he ai khat ruam lo. Nihin i martial law an hman ning hi martial law nih ai tinhning cu a si ruam lo. Martial law, timi hi 1530 hrawngah khan England ah ai thoknak hi a si i, cucu Siangpahrang Henry VIII chan a si. Cu hnu in cun, martial law hi โ€˜ralkap lawโ€™ (military law) tiin buaktlakin auh a si. Ralkap pakhat court-martial an tuah tikah, martial law hi an hman. Chanthar US ah cun, hihi Uniform Code of Military Justice chungah an khumhmi a si. 19th century hlan chung paohpaoh kha cu, US nih hin martial law hi emergency power (lakhruakin nawlngeihnak hman) bantukin a rak theihthiam lem lo, zeicahtiah, US tuanbia chung i martial law an hman hmasabik lio ah khan mipi nih faaktuk in an rak duh lo caah a si.

War of 1812 a dih lei sang, 1814 ah khan British ralkapbu do dingin Gen. Andrew Jackson nih New Orleans hi a rak ven bal i, cu lio ah cun martial law a rak hman. New Orleans i martial law ka hmanmi hi thil dik a si, zeicahtiah civilian cozah nih British hi a kham kho ti lo, tiin Gen. Jackson nih a chim. Ralkap nawlngeihnakhi tuantein khan an i relrin cang caah, Declaration of Independence zongah an lunghrinnak an langhter. Ralkap hi mahtein ai ukmi an si, i Civil power nakin a lianngandeuh mi an si, tiin King George III nih a chimmi bia cu an hnon i, raltuk tik i nawlngeihnak hi Congress le president kut ah thenphawt siseh law, commander-in-chief hi civil mi si peng seh, tiin Constitution ah an langhter.

1815 ah khan Gen. Jackson cu Louisiana Supreme Court nih $1,000 daan an tat. Asinain, 1840 ah president nih a liammi $1,000 a cham pinah a duhmi a tuahpiak rih. Cuticun US i martial law an hmannak avoihnihnak cu Rhode Island ah a vun i thok colh ve i, โ€œDorr Warโ€ timi buainak a chuak i, vote thlaknak kong i renghnak (restriction) a tuahtu stateโ€™s first constitution cu a vun hnursuan. 1842 ah khan Thomas Dorr timi pa nih cun Rhode Island khuasa pawl cu a thithtuai hna i anmah duh tein phung an i ser i, amah le mah governor ai pe. Cu ti i Dorr nih mipi a hruai hna caah cun, Rhode Island General Assembly nih martial law a hman i, dohdalnak donghter dingin a ralkap pawl a fial hna.

1849 ah US Supreme Court ah Luther v. Borden, tiin Rhode Island i an hmanmi martial law kong cu an ceih. Emergency kongah cun civilian pawl hi ralkap phung zulhter hi a sual lo. Cucaah, Rhode Island i martial law an hmanmi hi a sual lo, tiin Chief Justice Roger Taney nih a rak ti bal. Luther biachahnak nih a langhter mi cu, US ah hin emergency kongah cun martial law hi a um awk a si, tiin a langhter. Asinain, zei bantuk dirhmun set a phaak ah khin dah, cun zeitluk kau in dah martial law cu tuah a si kun ne lai, timi kongah Luther biachahnak hi a fiang fawn lo.
Martial law kong hi a fiang lo ngai. Asinain pakhat a fiang ngai mi cu, president nih martial law hmannak nawl a ngei lo, ti hi a si. Cun, federal cozah nih martial law tuahnak nawl a ngei, tiin Luther kong zongah khan Supreme Court nih direct in a chimmi a um lo.

Federal cozah nak hman in state governors nih hin martial law an hman hi a tam deuh ving. 1930 ah khan Oklahoma Governor William Alfalfa Bill Murray nih voi 30 leng lo martial law a hman bal ve. 1842 lio i Rhode Island General Assembly nih an hma hnu in khan, zeibantuk state legislature hmanh nih an hmang ti lo. 1900 lio i Akron Riot asiloah Galveston hurricane, hei ti bantuk ah khan cun state officals pawl nih martial law an hman ve ko. Cun, Western Federation of Miners pawl nih duhlonak daitein an langhter ko mi kham dingin Cripple Creek le Telluride ah 1903 ah khan Colorado Governor James Peabody nih martial law a hman. 2oth century tiangin US nih martial law a hman peng ko rih i, 1930 hrawnghrang ko kha a zualbik caan a si. 1933 ah Georgia Governor Eugene Talmadge nih a hman. Cun 1939 ah khan a chungtu Eurith Rivers nih hman ai tim ve, asinain a hlawh tling lo.

1931 ah khan Texas Governor Ross Sterling zong nih a nawlngeihnak cu federal court cungah a chuan i, phung ser dingin Texas National Guard a hman. 1920 ah khan, president nak hmanh in ralkap general pawl nih martial law hi an hman khun. 1941 ah khan Hawaii ah federal cozah nih martial law a hman. 1963 ah khan miphun thleidannak a dotu le kalpitu karlah buaibainak tawlrel duhah kum 1 chung Cambridge khuapi ah Maryland Governor J. Millard Tawes nih martial law a hman. Credit: Chelsea Bawi