President Trump Nih Amah Nawlngeihnak Te Lawng Hmang In Martial Law A Thanh Kho Lo

𝗣𝗿𝗲𝘀𝗶𝗱𝗲𝗻𝘁 𝗻𝗶𝗵 𝗮𝗺𝗮𝗵 𝗻𝗮𝘄𝗹𝗻𝗴𝗲𝗶𝗵𝗻𝗮𝗸 𝘁𝗲 𝗹𝗮𝘄𝗻𝗴 𝗵𝗺𝗮𝗻𝗴 𝗶𝗻 𝗺𝗮𝗿𝘁𝗶𝗮𝗹 𝗹𝗮𝘄 𝗮 𝘁𝗵𝗮𝗻𝗵 𝗸𝗵𝗼 𝗺𝗮𝘄? US ah martial law an hman nak hi kum 100 lengkai a si cang. Cun Luther kong i Supreme Court nih biachahnak an tuah hnu zongah khan, nihin tiangah President nih amah nawlngeihnak te lawng hmang in martial law a tuah khawh le khawh lo hi a fiang lo. President nih a hman khawh, asiloah, Congress nih nawl an pek hnu lawngah a hman khawh, tiin Supreme Court nih a chim bal hrimhrim lo. Federal martial law hi sangbik nawlngeihnak langhter a herh tikah, asiloah tuah lo awk a tha lo mi thil a tlun tikah hman a si, tiin 19th Century ah khan SC nih ruahnak a chuah bal. 20th Century ah hin cun, state martial law hi a biapimi constitutional power nih a chuah khawhmi law he ai pehtlaiin an langhter.

Supreme Court nih martial law kong i biachahnak a tuahmi pawl hi vun zoh u sih law, khat le khat ai khahlonak tete an um lulh. 1946 lio i Duncan v. Kahanamoku kong i SC nih biachahnak an tuah ning ah khan cun, federal martial law hi onh ngai dawh in a lang i, Congress nih maw, asiloah President nih a hman daan hi a control ding a si hnga.
Asinain, 1952 lio i Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer kongah khan, SC biachahmi kan zoh ve than a si ah cun, President Harry Truman kha biangeitu a rak si lo; Justice Robert Jackson tu kha nawlngeitubik dirhmun ah a rak dir. Cu ve bangin, Trump nih hin Mexico he an ramri ah deferral immigration law dirpi dingin US ralkap a hman a si ah cun, federal biaceihzung nih hin Yongstown tuanbia hi an vun i char lai i, mah tluk taitai hin president nih nawlchuahnak nawl ai ngeih maw, tiin biahalnak an chuahpi ko lai.

Youngstown kongah khan, Justice Jackson nih President Truman ai thlaak khawh lo nak a ruang 3 a langhter: 1nak – Congress nih president hi nawl an pek ko hnga, asinain biaceihzung pawl duhnak leng tiangin a si hnga. 2nak – Hi kongah Congress nih zeihmanh an chim lo caah, biaceihzung pawl nih amah tein Constitution chungah President nih nawl a hman khawh le khawh lo a ruang an kawlhawl lai. 3nak – President cawlcanghnak hi Congress nih an hmanmi laws he ai kalh.

President nih amah tein martial law a tuah kho lai maw tuah kho lai lo, timi kongah, Congress biachimmi hi zoh ta hna u sih. Bianabiaah, the Posse Comitatus Act, the Insurrection Act, the Stafford Act, the Non Detention Act le, US Code i Title 10 tangah a ummi a dang Act vialte nih hin hmunhma vialte an rolh dih cang. Cucaah, martial law he pehtlaiin, Congress duhnak ralchanh in President zeibantuk cawlcanghnak hmanh tuah an onh lo, tinak a si. Congress lei in nawlpeknak a um lo bu ah President nih martial law a thanh a si ah cun, Yongstown kong i 3nak zawn nih khan a tlaih thiamthiam ding a si.

Culawng si lo, civilian law enforcement cawlcanghnak paoh ah federal ralkap i telhvaih a ngah lo, tiin the Posse Comitatus Act nih phung a ser. Martial law kongah, Congress le President an i al a si ah cun, Congress nih a tei ko lai. Asinain, Constitution chung i president kut ah a chiahmi nawlngeihnak sangbik a takin hmannak nawl an pek hnu lawnglawng ah, Youngstown tangah hin Congress duhnak hi President hi a dironh khawh lai. Cun, martial law he pehtlaiin, president nakin Congress cung i Constitution nih nawlngeihnak tamdeuh in a chiahnak a ruang a langhtertu phunghrampi pathum an um rih: Article 1 i the Calling Forth Clause, Article IV i the Guarantee Clause le, Ariticle II i the Commander in Chief Clause hi an si.

The Calling Forth Clause nih hin the Laws of the Union kalpi dingah the Militia remhsiam le uk khawhnak nawl hi president kutah si lo in, Congress kutah nawlngeihnak a chiah deuh. The Guarantee Clause nih president kut ah si lo in federal cozah kut ah nawlngeihnak a pek. Commander in Chief Clause nih hin Posse Comitatus Act le ramchung i ralkap hmannak kong i dun le daan a suaisamtu a dang phung pawl ralchanh in president kut ah martial law kalpi khawhnak nawl a pe lai lo.

President hi Army le Navy i Commander-in-Chief a si, tiin President hi min pek a si tikah hin, ram pumpi ca i Commander-in-Chief a si, tinak a si, tiin Constitution nih a chim hrimhrim lo. Ramchung buaibainak kongah hin, ralkap hman an si awk a si le si lo kongah Congress pawl hi control tuahtu ah Constitution nih a telhchih ve hna.
Asinain, ramdang nih US an vun kah sual a si ah cun, Congress nih nawl an pek theng lo zongah, President nih hin amah nawl in a rak dironhnak, doh ve nak nawl a ngei. Congress nih ralkap hmannak nawl a pek a si le, ralkap pawl uk le hruai cu president kutah a um colh ve.

Ramchung i ralkap hmannak kongah Constitution nih president kut ah nawlngeihnak saangbik le a hlankan cawlcanghnak nawl a pe ko. Hi kongah hin presiden nih Congress ralchanh in rian a tuan kho lo. Asinain, 1866 lio Ex parte Milligan tiin Supreme Court nih baichahnak a tuahmi nih khan, president nih hin zeimaw zat ah cun ram chung hmunhma pakhat khat ah martial law a tuah khawh pinah, civil biaceihzung pawl zong ralkap nih hmunhma laak dingin nawl a chuah khawh, ti a si. SC nih milligan kong i an khuaruahnak hi thil ai pehzul lo mi tampi a um caah ralring tein a sullam leh hau a si. Emergency in hmanmi nawlngeihnak nih hin Constitution nih phung ai ngeihmi hi zeitikhmanh ah a longh lai lo, tiin SC nih fektein a chim. Ral a thawh ruang i buaibainak faaktuk in a tlun tik lawnglawng ah khin ralkap nih civil biaceihzung pawl ah hmunhma an laak ding khi a si. 1942 lio i Ex parte Quirin nih a sermi phung hi emergency in ralkap nih civil biaceihzung ah hmunhma a lakmi hi fonh ding a si lo. US citizen telhchih in, Guantanamo Bay i US nih thong an thlakmi hna hi US ralkap nih an biaceihnak nawl a ngei. Cucu international law of war phungning a si caah a si. Credit: Chelsea Bawi