๐—ž๐—ฎ๐˜„๐—น๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—บ ๐—งฬฃ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—–๐—ฎ๐—ฎ๐—ป ๐—–๐—ต๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—ต (๐— ๐˜†๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ ๐—ฆ๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด): ๐—™๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐˜๐—ต ๐—ช๐—ฎ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐——๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐˜†!

๐—ž๐—ฎ๐˜„๐—น๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—บ ๐—งฬฃ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—–๐—ฎ๐—ฎ๐—ป ๐—–๐—ต๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—ต (๐— ๐˜†๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ ๐—ฆ๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด): ๐—™๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐˜๐—ต ๐—ช๐—ฎ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐——๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐˜†! โŸจestimated reading time: 5 minutes, 1581 wordsโŸฉ
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February 24, 2021 Vawleipi ah zaukphung tiletpi (๐˜„๐—ฎ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐˜†) nih a phakning kha Political Science nih phunthum: ๐—™๐—ถ๐—ฟ๐˜€๐˜ ๐—ช๐—ฎ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ (1828โ€“1926), ๐—ฆ๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ช๐—ฎ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ (1945-1974) le ๐“๐ก๐ข๐ซ๐ ๐–๐š๐ฏ๐ž (1974 – ) tiah a tlangpi in a แนญhen.
Cun democracy a tlakchuk kirnak tilet (๐˜„๐—ฎ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐˜‡๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป) zong kha phunthum: First Wave (1926 to 1942), Second Wave (1961 to 1977) le Third Wave (1978-) tiah a tlangpi in a แนญhen. Samuel P. Huntington nih 1991 ah “Third Wave” timi cauk a chuah in hi แนญhenning hi a hun lar khun. Asia ram zeimaw hi cu vawlei ralpi 2nk hnu deuhah democracy tiletpi nih a phak chommi kan si hna i ram tam deuh cu “Third Wave” deuh nih a phakmi ram kan si.

Asia ram hna lakah “Third Wave” democracy tiletpi nih a phakmi lakah a hlawhtling ko tiah conglomh deuhmi cu South Korea le Taiwan khi an si. Indonesia, Philippines le East Timor hi “challenges” an ngei pah tonah chiah an si i, naihrawng kum 15 in Bangladesh, Pakistan le Thailand hi an dirhmun ralrin lau awk dirhmun lei (alarming trend) ah chiah an si. “Waves of Democracy” tilet nih a phak hna i democracy hruainak phung nih kum saupi a umpi cangmi ram hna zongah democracy hnur a kirnak le chiatlei a panh แนญhannak zon (๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—ฏ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ธ๐˜€๐—น๐—ถ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป) hi tahning a phunphun kha an um. Ram cheukhat cu a ningpi in a khurchung tawne “๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—ฏ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ธ๐—ฑ๐—ผ๐˜„๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐˜€๐—ฎ๐—น” tiang kha an tla แนญhan hna i, ram cheukhat cu a ningpi siloin tlawmpaltete in a tlami le a tla hnik dengmang mi “๐—ป๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ ๐—บ๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜€๐—ฒ๐˜€” timi zong kha an um. Tutan Kawlram a cangmi cu: a tawne tiang atla แนญhanmi ram kha a hun si.

2019 ah mithiamsang pakhat nih 1950-2018 karlak Asia ram 18 chung democracy dirhmun “๐—ฏ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ธ๐˜€๐—น๐—ถ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ผ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐˜€” kha dohhlatnak research a tuah tikah ram 10 ahcun democracy atlu bak i, ram 6 hi an tluk hlan deuhah an nung kho แนญhan, ati. Cun ram 2 hi tlaklei an panh ziahmah, tiah a chim. India le Philippines hi tlaklei a panhmi “ongoing” ah chiah an si. India ram vuncichok Modi le Philippinces vuncichok Duterte hi zaukphung ziaza (democratic quality) an kalhnak zon a um len tiah puh an tong pah hna i, ๐—ง๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—ธ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ถ๐˜‡๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ง๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—ถ ๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐˜€ ๐—น๐—ฒ ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐—บ๐—ฝ๐—ถ๐˜€๐—บ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—จ๐—ฆ ๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐˜€ phun zong hi cu phun deuhah mi tampi cu an chiahmi asi. Tulio nitlakram tampi hi “third wave of autocratization” nih a kan phak, tiah an ti. Democracy nunning ziaza he kalh deuhin ram a hruaimi an karh ngaingai ah an hmuh lio khi asi. Cuticun, democracy a fek cangmi kan timi ram hna zongah “๐˜„๐—ฎ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐˜‡๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป” tilet kha ram zeimaw ah a tho cuahmah ve lio khi asi.

Democracy thadernak a langhtertu “๐˜„๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ธ ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐˜† ๐˜€๐˜†๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—บ๐—ฒ” kong an hlathlai nakah mipi sin ram uknak nawl chuh a tamnak ram hi economic leiin a tha der rihmi ram (๐˜„๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ธ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—บ๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ), ramkhel hruainak tungtlang a fekfuan aแนญhawng rih lomi ram (๐—น๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€ ๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—ถ๐—ป๐˜€๐˜๐—ถ๐˜๐˜‚๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜‡๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป) le ralkap nih ram hruainak ah huham iapnak le nawl tampi an ngeih tawnnak ram (๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฒ๐˜๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ถ๐˜€๐—บ) ah a cang duh khun, tiah an ti. Hi lakah ralkap nih uk balnak tuanbia a ngeimi (history of military praetorianism) ahcun a let hnih in a chuak duh, tiah an chim. Cun micungcuang le milian mingan hna ruangah a cangmi “๐—ฒ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฒ ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป” zong kha hi bantuk ramah a um duh ngai, ti asi. Thailand ah ralkap nih uknak an lakmi cu micungcuang siangpahrang chungkhar lei phu (arch-royalists le monarchy) le Thai ralkap an dirti caah khan asi. Khuate lei um mi sifak deuh le dongchia deuh lawng nih “๐—ง๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—ธ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐˜†โ€ kha an duh i, khuapi ummi milian le mingan deuh “elites” pawl deuh nih cun Thanksin le chungkhar ram uknak cu an duh lo. Cucaah Thailand ah ralkap nih uknak an lak i an uk khawhnak cu: “๐—ฒ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฒ ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป” phun aa tel caah khan asi.

Kawlram ah micungcuang le milian le mirum (elites) timi tampi hi USDP chungah an tam. Cun Kawl nih an siangpahrang cu an biaknak le zumhnak humhaktu (๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ณ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—•๐˜‚๐—ฑ๐—ฑ๐—ต๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜ ๐—ณ๐—ฎ๐—ถ๐˜๐—ต) ah an rak ruah bantuk khan tulio Kawlmi tampi zong nih Tatmadaw kha cu phunah cun an ruah ve. Tatmadaw hrim zong nih “๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ด๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ฎ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ป๐˜๐—ฟ๐˜†” ah an i ruat i ram a humhak khotubik ah an i hmu. Tulio ah Senior General Min Aung Hlaing cu YMBA (Young Men’s Buddhist Association) i “Permanent Patron” kha asi. YMBA timi cu Kawlram ah ca a cawng balmi nih kan theihmi kha an si. Cu nih bia tampi khi a chim. Cun Kawlmi tampi cu phun an แนญanh ngaingai i, USDP cozah chanah “Race and Religion Protection Laws” upadi zong kha an rak ser. Naiah Kawl ralkap nih uknak an lak tlawmpal ah Kawlram Deputy Prime Minister hlun U Kyaw Nyein fapa Bo Kyaw Ngen nih “I cannot accept DASSK. I am a Nationalist & a strong Buddhist” tiah aแนญial.

Hi bantuk phun hi Kawlmi micungcuang hrinsor chungkhar deuh hna lakah an tam ngaingai. Cucaah tutan ralkap nih uknak an laknak a chuahtertu thil hi chunglei in a langlomi thil tam ngaingai khi um dawh in a lang i, political scientist nih “๐—ฒ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฒ ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป” an timi phun kha aa tel ve. Cucaah hmanthlak kau deuhin kan zoh ahcun nitlakram tampi hmanhah “the 3rd wave of autocratization” kha an ton cuahmah ve ko caah Kawlram democracy nih hnulei a kirแนญhan mi hi cu khuaruahhar tuk awk cu asi lo. Mahbelte, rang tukin a kir แนญhanmi (democratic breakdown) tu hi cu rammi caah a hun poi ngaingai. Rammi caah thil biapi ngaimi cu: hnulei a pil hnu ahhin a hun kir แนญhan te hnga maw timi “๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฏ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ธ” khi asi. Cun mi tampi nih ruah ngaingaimi cu a hun kirแนญhan ahcun zei lampi in dah a hun kir แนญhan khawhning asi lai, timi “๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฏ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ธ” khi asi.

Kawlram hi zeicadah hlathlaitu tampi nih democracy tiletpi nih a phaknak “Second Wave” zongah an chiah hnga lo i “Third Wave” cazin zongah an telh hnga lo timi kha ruah awk a um nawn. 1948 – 1962 tiang kha “Parliamentary Democracy” ram a rak si bal ko i, South East Asia ahcun ram แนญhangchobik pakhat kha a rak si. Ramkhel hlathlaitu hna nih BSPP cozah chan “๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฒ-๐—ฝ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐˜๐˜† ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ฒ ๐—น๐—ฒ ๐˜€๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ถ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜ ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ฒ” um lio kha “democracy ram” ah an chiah lo asi ko lai. Cun 2008 phunghram tang a ummi Kawlram hi constitutional expert a cheu nih cun “๐— ๐—ถ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐˜†-๐—ฆ๐˜๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ฒ” an ti. “Democratic State” ah an chia lo. Cun “๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—ฏ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ธ๐—ฑ๐—ผ๐˜„๐—ป” atu le atu a chuah tawn ruangah le ralkap nih iapnak le nawl tampi an ngeih tawnnak “๐ฉ๐ซ๐š๐ž๐ญ๐จ๐ซ๐ข๐š๐ง ๐ฌ๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ž” ram asi ca zongah “waves of democracy” tilet nih a phak bal lonak ram cazin ah an chiah khi a si men lai. Democracy a tlakchuknak le kirnak tilet “waves of autocratization” lei kapin zoh zongin cucu hmuh khawh pah khi asi.

Zeipoh a va si ah “๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—ฏ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ธ๐—ฑ๐—ผ๐˜„๐—ป” deuh lawng chim i, democracy a hun kir แนญhannak lampi le nun แนญhannak (๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฏ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ธ) lei chim bang lo cu a taza deuh rua lai lo. “Waves of Democracy” tilet nih a phak bal cangmi ram hi zoh tikah demoracy nih a kirtak แนญhan hna zongah an thi thai bal lem lo โ€“ an dir แนญhan tawn ko. Kan pawngkam ram hi zoh khawh asi. Fak an tlak (breakdown) le din an tlak (near misses) cu ram pakhat le pakhat aa khat hna lo nain Philippines zong voi hnih (1972 and 2005) an tla nain an tho แนญhan. Thailand zong voihnih (2006 and 2014) an tla nain an tho แนญhan ko. Pakistan (2000) le Bangaladesh (2008) zong an rak tla nain an tho แนญhan ko. South Korea(2015), Timor (2015), India (1976), Sri Lanka (2009) le Nepal (2013) zong cu thotho khi an si – an dir แนญhan dih ko. Nain, an ramah “democracy” akir แนญhannak lam “๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฏ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ธ” tu cu ram pakhat le pakhat an i khat hna lo. Phun hnih in an hun kir แนญhan. Lam pakhat cu: mipi cawlcangh dohdalhnak “๐—ฐ๐—ถ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐—น ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ” lampi in asi i, a dang pakhat cu: hruaitu thimnak “๐—ฒ๐—น๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜€” lampi in an ram ah democracy kha a kir แนญhan.

Tulio hi Kawlram ah mipi cawlcangh dohdalhnak (CDM) kha a um cuahmah. Hi lam piin Kawlram ah democracy hi a hung kir แนญhan kho ngaingaimi khi asi. Philippines, South Korea le Timor ram zong kha mah lampi hin a rak kir แนญhan. Cun Kawl ralkap zong nih cun “thimnak” kan tuah แนญhan lai, tiah bia an ikam. Ramkhel biafang cun “๐—ฃ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—บ๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜€๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐˜† ๐—–๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฝ” an tuahmi kha asi. Cucaah mah lampi pahnih chungin pakhat paohpoah in Kawlram ah “democracy” cu a hung kir แนญhan ko lai i “zeitik” timi lawng kha chim khawh lomi asi.

Kum zeimaw hrawngin ๐‘€๐‘–๐‘‘๐‘‘๐‘™๐‘’ ๐ธ๐‘Ž๐‘ ๐‘ก ๐‘Ÿ๐‘Ž๐‘š ๐‘™๐‘’ ๐‘๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘กโ„Ž ๐ด๐‘“๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘๐‘Ž ram zeimawzat ah hramhram uknak (Dictatorships) kha tlang cimh in an cim thluahmah hna i democracy ramah an i thleng. Cucu “Arab Spring” tiah kan theih ngaimi kha asi. Laiholh cun “๐—”๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฏ ๐—งฬฃ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—–๐—ฎ๐—ฎ๐—ป ๐—–๐—ต๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—ต” kan ti men lai. Cutin, kan vawlei nichuah laifang ah democracy pangpar an par luaimaimi kha ramkhel cabia แนญialtu cheukhat nih “๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐˜† ๐˜๐—ถ๐—น๐—ฒ๐˜๐—ฝ๐—ถ ๐˜ƒ๐—ผ๐—ถ ๐—น๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐—ธ” (The Fourth Wave of Democracy) tiah min an sak.
Kawlram ah khuasik a hung dih i แนญhal caan kan hun chuak cang lai- Myanmar Spring! Hi “๐“๐ก๐ž ๐…๐จ๐ฎ๐ซ๐ญ๐ก ๐–๐š๐ฏ๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ƒ๐ž๐ฆ๐จ๐œ๐ซ๐š๐œ๐ฒ” tal nihcun kan ram te hi hun kan phan ve cang sehlaw ti hi rammi hna kan thlacamnak le aunak cu asi.
Salai Van Lian Thang